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Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy: Electron and Ion Microprobe Analysis

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Title (user) : Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy: Electron and Ion Microprobe AnalysisTitle (google) : Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy Electron and Ion Microprobe AnalysisISBN : 9781461344247,97814...
Description

Title (user) : Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy: Electron and Ion Microprobe Analysis

Title (google) : Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy Electron and Ion Microprobe Analysis

ISBN : 9781461344247,9781461344223

DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-4422-3

GoogleBook ID : 7T1OnwEACAAJ

Edition : 1

Authors (user) : J. I. Goldstein, H. Yakowitz, D. E. Newbury (auth.), Joseph I. Goldstein, Harvey Yakowitz (eds.)

Authors (google) : Joseph Goldstein

Publisher : Springer US

Language : English

Publication Date : 1975

File Format : pdf

Categories : Technology & Engineering


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Description (user) :

In the spring of 1963, a well-known research institute made a market survey to assess how many scanning electron microscopes might be sold in the United States. They predicted that three to five might be sold in the first year a commercial SEM was available, and that ten instruments would saturate the marketplace. In 1964, the Cambridge Instruments Stereoscan was introduced into the United States and, in the following decade, over 1200 scanning electron microscopes were sold in the U. S. alone, representing an investment conservatively estimated at $50,000- $100,000 each. Why were the market surveyers wrongil Perhaps because they asked the wrong persons, such as electron microscopists who were using the highly developed transmission electron microscopes of the day, with resolutions from 5-10 A. These scientists could see little application for a microscope that was useful for looking at surfaces with a resolution of only (then) about 200 A. Since that time, many scientists have learned to appreciate that information content in an image may be of more importance than resolution per se. The SEM, with its large depth of field and easily that often require little or no sample prepara­ interpreted images of samples tion for viewing, is capable of providing significant information about rough samples at magnifications ranging from 50 X to 100,000 X. This range overlaps considerably with the light microscope at the low end, and with the electron microscope at the high end.


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Description (google) :
In the spring of 1963, a well-known research institute made a market survey to assess how many scanning electron microscopes might be sold in the United States. They predicted that three to five might be sold in the first year a commercial SEM was available, and that ten instruments would saturate the marketplace. In 1964, the Cambridge Instruments Stereoscan was introduced into the United States and, in the following decade, over 1200 scanning electron microscopes were sold in the U. S. alone, representing an investment conservatively estimated at $50,000- $100,000 each. Why were the market surveyers wrongil Perhaps because they asked the wrong persons, such as electron microscopists who were using the highly developed transmission electron microscopes of the day, with resolutions from 5-10 A. These scientists could see little application for a microscope that was useful for looking at surfaces with a resolution of only (then) about 200 A. Since that time, many scientists have learned to appreciate that information content in an image may be of more importance than resolution per se. The SEM, with its large depth of field and easily that often require little or no sample prepara interpreted images of samples tion for viewing, is capable of providing significant information about rough samples at magnifications ranging from 50 X to 100,000 X. This range overlaps considerably with the light microscope at the low end, and with the electron microscope at the high end.


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Table of contents :
Front Matter....Pages i-xviii
Introduction....Pages 1-19
Electron Optics....Pages 21-48
Electron Beam-Specimen Interaction....Pages 49-94
Image Formation in the Scanning Electron Microscope....Pages 95-148
Contrast Mechanisms of Special Interest in Materials Science....Pages 149-210
Specimen Preparation, Special Techniques, and Applications of the Scanning Electron Microscope....Pages 211-262
X-Ray Spectral Measurement and Interpretation....Pages 263-297
Microanalysis of Thin Films and Fine Structure....Pages 299-326
Methods of Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Used in Electron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy....Pages 327-372
Computational Schemes for Quantitative X-Ray Analysis: On-Line Analysis with Small Computers....Pages 373-400
Practical Aspects of X-Ray Microanalysis....Pages 401-434
Special Techniques in the X-Ray Analysis of Samples....Pages 435-489
Biological Applications: Sample Preparation and Quantitation....Pages 491-527
Ion Microprobe Mass Analysis....Pages 529-572
Back Matter....Pages 573-582

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