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Microelectronics 2nd Edition

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Description

Title (user) : Microelectronics 2nd Edition

Title (google) : Microelectronics

ISBN : 0849333911,9780849333910

DDC : 621.381

LCC : TK7874 .M4587 2005

GoogleBook ID : AVPLjwEACAAJ

OpenLibrary ID : OL22716463M

Edition : 2

Authors (user) : Jerry C. Whitaker

Authors (google) : Jerry C. Whitaker

Publisher : CRC Press

Language : English

Publication Date : 2005

File Format : pdf

Categories : Technology & Engineering


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Description (user) :
When it comes to electronics, demand grows as technology shrinks. From consumer and industrial markets to military and aerospace applications, the call is for more functionality in smaller and smaller devices. Culled from the second edition of the best-selling Electronics Handbook, Microelectronics, Second Edition presents a summary of the current state of microelectronics and its innovative directions.This book focuses on the materials, devices, and applications of microelectronics technology. It details the IC design process and VLSI circuits, including gate arrays, programmable logic devices and arrays, parasitic capacitance, and transmission line delays. Coverage ranges from thermal properties and semiconductor materials to MOSFETs, digital logic families, memory devices, microprocessors, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, digital filters, and multichip module technology. Expert contributors discuss applications in machine vision, ad hoc networks, printing technologies, and data and optical storage systems. The book also includes defining terms, references, and suggestions for further reading. This edition features two new sections on fundamental properties and semiconductor devices.With updated material and references in every chapter, Microelectronics, Second Edition is an essential reference for work with microelectronics, electronics, circuits, systems, semiconductors, logic design, and microprocessors.


------------------------------------------

Description (google) :
When it comes to electronics, demand grows as technology shrinks. From consumer and industrial markets to military and aerospace applications, the call is for more functionality in smaller and smaller devices. Culled from the second edition of the best-selling Electronics Handbook, Microelectronics, Second Edition presents a summary of the current state of microelectronics and its innovative directions. This book focuses on the materials, devices, and applications of microelectronics technology. It details the IC design process and VLSI circuits, including gate arrays, programmable logic devices and arrays, parasitic capacitance, and transmission line delays. Coverage ranges from thermal properties and semiconductor materials to MOSFETs, digital logic families, memory devices, microprocessors, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, digital filters, and multichip module technology. Expert contributors discuss applications in machine vision, ad hoc networks, printing technologies, and data and optical storage systems. The book also includes defining terms, references, and suggestions for further reading. This edition features two new sections on fundamental properties and semiconductor devices. With updated material and references in every chapter, Microelectronics, Second Edition is an essential reference for work with microelectronics, electronics, circuits, systems, semiconductors, logic design, and microprocessors.


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Table of contents :
Microelectronics, Second Edition......Page 2
Preface......Page 4
Contributors......Page 5
Contents......Page 7
Table of Contents......Page 0
1.1 Introduction......Page 9
Elemental (IV–IV) Semiconductors......Page 10
Compound III–V Semiconductors......Page 11
Three-Dimensional Crystal Lattice......Page 12
Crystal Directions and Planes......Page 13
1.3 Energy Bands and Related Semiconductor Parameters......Page 14
Conduction and Valence Band......Page 15
Direct Gap and Indirect Gap Semiconductors......Page 16
Effective Masses of Carriers......Page 17
Intrinsic Carrier Densities......Page 18
Substitutional Dopants......Page 20
1.4 Carrier Transport......Page 22
Low Field Mobilities......Page 23
Saturated Carrier Velocities......Page 24
Point Defects......Page 26
Line Defects......Page 27
Surface Defects: The Reconstructed Surface......Page 28
Defining Terms......Page 29
Further Information......Page 31
2.2 Fundamentals of Heat......Page 33
Thermal Conductivity......Page 34
Gases......Page 35
Semiconductors......Page 36
2.4 Engineering Data......Page 37
Temperature Compensation......Page 38
Defining Terms......Page 39
Further Information......Page 40
Semiconductors......Page 41
3.2 Diodes......Page 42
Defining Terms......Page 43
Further Information......Page 44
4.1 Introduction......Page 45
Strong-Inversion Characteristics......Page 47
Threshold Voltage......Page 48
Driving Ability and ID,sat......Page 51
Transconductance......Page 53
Subthreshold Control......Page 54
Hot-Electron Effects......Page 55
Acknowledgments......Page 56
References......Page 57
Further Information......Page 58
5.2 High-Speed Design Techniques......Page 59
Clocks and Clock Schemes in High-Speed Circuit Design......Page 60
Asynchronous Circuits and Systems......Page 64
Interconnect Parasitics and Their Impact on High-Speed Design......Page 65
Defining Terms......Page 66
Further Information......Page 67
6.1 Introduction......Page 68
6.3 General Considerations in IC Design......Page 69
Device Scaling......Page 70
Geometric Design Rules......Page 71
6.4 Design of Small-Scale and Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits......Page 73
NMOS Inverters......Page 74
NMOS Gates......Page 76
CMOS Gates......Page 78
6.5 LSI and VLSI Circuit Design......Page 79
Multiphase Clocking......Page 80
6.6 Increasing Packing Density and Reducing Power Dissipation in MOS Circuits......Page 81
6.7 Gate Arrays......Page 82
Programmable Logic Array......Page 83
Resistance-Capacitance (RC) Delay Lines......Page 86
Superbuffers......Page 87
6.11 Output Buffers......Page 89
References......Page 90
Further Information......Page 91
7.1 Introduction......Page 92
7.2 Transistor-Transistor Logic......Page 93
7.3 CMOS Logic......Page 97
7.4 Emitter-Coupled Logic......Page 101
7.5 Programmable Logic......Page 104
Programmable Array Logic......Page 105
Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Complex PLDs......Page 106
Further Information......Page 108
8.1 Introduction......Page 110
Memory Hierarchy......Page 111
System Level Memory Organization......Page 112
Memory Device Organization......Page 113
Masked Read-Only Memory (ROM)......Page 114
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM)......Page 115
Electrical Erasable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM)......Page 116
Flash-EEPROM......Page 117
Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)......Page 118
Direct Random Access Memory (DRAM)......Page 120
Content Addressable Memory (CAM)......Page 123
8.4 Interfacing Memory Devices......Page 124
Fast Page Mode (FPM) or Page Mode......Page 125
Nibble Mode......Page 126
Column Address Strobe (CAS) Before RAS Refresh (Self-Refresh)......Page 128
References......Page 129
Further Information......Page 130
9.2 Architecture Basics......Page 131
Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) and Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Processors......Page 132
Logical Similarity......Page 133
Short Chronology of Microprocessor Development......Page 135
The Motorola Family of Microprocessors......Page 137
RISC Processor Development......Page 138
Further Information......Page 139
10.2 D/A and A/D Circuits......Page 141
D/A Conversion Processes......Page 142
A/D Conversion Processes......Page 143
A/D Converter ICs......Page 144
Selection Criteria for D/A and A/D Converter ICs......Page 146
Defining Terms......Page 147
Further Information......Page 148
Fundamentals......Page 167
Structures......Page 170
Design Techniques......Page 171
Multirate and Adaptive FIR Filters......Page 172
12.3 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters......Page 173
IIR Filter Design......Page 174
Analog Filters......Page 176
Butterworth Filters......Page 177
Chebyshev Filters (Type I Chebyshev Filters)......Page 178
Comparison......Page 179
Design Using Bilinear Transformations......Page 180
Design Example 2......Page 181
12.4 Finite Wordlength Effects......Page 182
Fixed-Point Quantization Errors......Page 183
Floating-Point Quantization Errors......Page 184
Roundoff Noise......Page 185
Limit Cycles......Page 186
Overflow Oscillations......Page 187
Coefficient Quantization Error......Page 188
Defining Terms......Page 189
References......Page 190
Further Information......Page 191
13.2 Multichip Module Technology Definitions......Page 192
13.3 Design, Repair, and Test......Page 199
13.4 When to Use Multichip Modules......Page 201
13.5 Issues in the Design of Multichip Modules......Page 202
Defining Terms......Page 203
Further Information......Page 204
14.2 Defect Types......Page 205
Traditional Faults and Fault Models......Page 206
Types of Test......Page 207
External Stored Response Testing......Page 208
BIST......Page 209
Scan......Page 210
IDDQ......Page 211
Defining Terms......Page 212
Further Information......Page 213
16.2 Defining a Computer Architecture......Page 233
16.3 Single Processor Systems......Page 234
16.4 Multiple Processor Systems......Page 238
16.5 Memory Hierarchy......Page 239
16.6 Implementation Considerations......Page 240
Technology Considerations......Page 242
Wafer Scale Integration (WSI)......Page 244
Defining Terms......Page 245
Magazines and Journals......Page 246
17.1 Introduction......Page 247
17.2 The Notion of Software......Page 248
17.3 The Nature of Software Engineering......Page 251
17.4 A New Approach......Page 255
17.5 Apollo On-Board Flight Software Effort: Lessons Learned......Page 256
17.6 Development Before the Fact......Page 258
17.8 Process......Page 261
17.9 Select the Right Paradigm and then Automate......Page 263
Defining Terms......Page 265
References......Page 266
Further Information......Page 267
18.2 Neuron cell......Page 268
18.3 Feedforward Neural Networks......Page 270
Correlation Learning Rule......Page 272
Widrow-Hoff LMS Learning Rule......Page 273
Linear Regression......Page 274
Delta Learning Rule......Page 275
Error Backpropagation Learning......Page 276
Functional Link Network......Page 278
Feedforward Version of the Counterpropagation Network......Page 279
WTA Architecture......Page 280
Cascade Correlation Architecture......Page 281
Radial Basis Function Networks......Page 282
Autoassociative Memory......Page 283
Bidirectional Associative Memories (BAM)......Page 284
Fuzzification......Page 285
Defuzzification......Page 286
Selection and Reproduction......Page 288
Reproduction......Page 289
Mutation......Page 290
References......Page 291
19.1 Introduction......Page 293
Relationship to Other Fields......Page 294
Imaging Geometry......Page 295
Sampling and Quantization......Page 296
Color Vision......Page 297
Triangulation......Page 298
19.3 Segmentation......Page 299
Gradient......Page 300
Laplacian of Gaussian......Page 301
Region Formation......Page 302
Other Segmentation Methods......Page 303
Polygonalization......Page 304
Feature Extraction......Page 305
Matching......Page 306
Template Matching......Page 307
Recognition System Components......Page 308
Constructive Solid Geometry......Page 309
Generalized Cone......Page 310
19.6 Dynamic Vision......Page 311
Difference Pictures......Page 312
Optical Flow......Page 313
Segmentation Using a Moving Camera......Page 314
Medical Image Analysis......Page 315
Industrial Inspection and Robotics......Page 316
References......Page 317
Further Information......Page 318
20.1 Introduction......Page 319
20.2 The Signal Subspace Approach......Page 320
20.3 Short-Term Spectral Estimation......Page 323
20.4 Multiple State Speech Model......Page 324
20.5 Second-Order Statistics Estimation......Page 325
20.6 Concluding Remarks......Page 327
Defining Terms......Page 328
21.2 Routing Algorithms......Page 330
Proactive Algorithms......Page 331
Reactive Algorithms......Page 333
Hybrid Algorithms......Page 334
21.3 Medium Access Protocols......Page 335
Protocols Categories......Page 336
IEEE 802.11......Page 338
Bluetooth......Page 339
Other Protocols......Page 340
21.4 TCP over Ad Hoc Networks......Page 342
MAC Layer Impact......Page 343
Ad Hoc TCP......Page 344
21.5 Capacity of Ad Hoc Networks......Page 345
IEEE802.11......Page 346
Increasing the Capacity of Ad Hoc Networks......Page 347
References......Page 348
Use of Top-Down Business Oriented Approach......Page 352
Use of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model......Page 354
Differentiation Among Major Categories of Networking......Page 355
Physical Topologies......Page 356
User Issues......Page 357
Local Communication......Page 358
File Sharing and Application Sharing......Page 359
Anticipated Growth is Key......Page 360
Network Printing......Page 361
Network Management......Page 362
Local Area Network Architectures......Page 363
FDDI......Page 364
Servers......Page 365
Concentrators......Page 366
Applications: What Can Internetworking Do for You?......Page 367
The OSI Model and Internetworking Devices......Page 369
Bridge Functionality......Page 370
Bridge Categorization......Page 371
Router Functionality......Page 372
Determination of Best Path......Page 373
Wide Area Network Architecture......Page 374
Packet Switching......Page 375
Defining Terms......Page 377
References......Page 378
Further Information......Page 379
Resolution and Addressability......Page 380
Grayscale......Page 381
23.2 Printing Technologies......Page 382
Continuous Ink Jet......Page 383
Drop On Demand (DOD) Ink Jet......Page 384
Thermal Ink Jet/Bubble Jet DOD Printers......Page 385
Piezoelectric DOD Printers......Page 386
Grayscale Methods for DOD Ink Jet Printers......Page 388
Ink and Paper for Ink Jet Devices......Page 389
Direct Thermal......Page 390
Resistive Ribbon Thermal Transfer......Page 391
Printing Process Steps......Page 392
23.6 Magnetographic and Ionographic Technologies......Page 394
23.7 System Issues......Page 395
Color Management......Page 396
References......Page 397
Further Information......Page 398
RAID Elements......Page 399
RAID Level 0......Page 400
RAID Level 2......Page 401
RAID Level 3......Page 402
RAID Level 5......Page 403
Other RAID Levels......Page 404
Further Information......Page 405
25.2 The Optical Head......Page 406
The Servosystem......Page 408
Optical Recording and Read Channel......Page 410
Phase-Change Recording......Page 412
25.4 Magneto-Optic Technology......Page 413
25.5 Compact Disk-Recordable (CD-R)......Page 415
Recording Modes of CD-R......Page 416
Disks......Page 417
Applications of Optical Library Systems......Page 418
Future Technology and Improvements in Optical Storage......Page 420
References......Page 421
Further Information......Page 422
26.1 Background......Page 423
26.2 Introduction......Page 424
26.4 Code Families......Page 425
26.5 Linear Block Codes......Page 426
Decoding Linear Block Codes......Page 427
26.6 Convolutional Codes......Page 428
Turbo Codes......Page 430
26.8 Applications......Page 431
Defining Terms......Page 432
Further Information......Page 433

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